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Learn the basics of programming

Learn the basics of programming

Programming basics are the concepts and principles that a new programmer needs to start learning programming and developing his skills.

What is the difference between learning programming and programming languages?

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Learning programming is the comprehensive process of understanding the basic concepts and principles behind writing code. This includes understanding how to solve problems creatively using appropriate programming techniques, and how to turn ideas into executable code.

Programming languages ​​are the tools that programmers use to transform ideas and concepts into executable codes. Every programming language has specific rules and syntax that allow programmers to write and execute code. Programming languages ​​differ in the formulas and rules they govern, in the tools and libraries available to them, and in the uses that suit them.

It is important to understand the difference between the two, as learning programming represents a general understanding of concepts and principles, while programming languages ​​represent tools that can be used to apply these concepts and principles in actual programming work.

The simplest path to learning programming

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Start by choosing from popular programming languages ​​like Python, JavaScript, or Java. The language you choose may vary depending on your personal interests and needs.

Then move on to learning basic concepts such as variables, data types, conditions, and loops. You can find free resources online such as learning sites like Codecademy and freeCodeCamp and video sites like YouTube.

After that, you must start writing simple codes and programs to apply what you have learned. Try solving simple problems using the concepts you have studied.

Start studying more complex topics such as functions, advanced graph structures, and more control flow.

Start building small or medium-sized projects to apply what you've learned, such as simple web applications or simple games.

Continuous learning and development:Continue improving your skills by solving more programming challenges, reading programming books, and participating in online programming communities.

Continue advanced learningOnce you are comfortable with the basics, learn more complex concepts such as object-oriented programming and functional programming.

Basic concepts of programming

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1. Variables:

  • In programming, variables are used to store values ​​and data.
  • Variable values ​​can be integers, decimals, strings, lists, etc.
  • For example, you could have a gen_age variable that contains a person's birth age, or a gen_name variable that contains a person's name.

2. Texts and strings:

  • Strings are a set of characters, used to represent texts in programming.
  • Various operations can be performed on texts, such as concatenation and slicing.
  • For example, you could have the text “Hello world!”

3. Conditions and flow control:

  • Terms allow us to make decisions in the program.
  • Conditions are used to check whether they are true or false.
  • Control flow can be used to implement or avoid certain pieces of code based on conditions.
  • For example, if the value of the variable gen_age is greater than 18, “You are an adult!” may be printed, otherwise “You are a child!” may be printed.

4. Episodes:

  • Loops are used to automatically repeat the execution of certain pieces of code.
  • There are two main types of loops: “for” loops and “while” loops.
  • Loops can be used to perform the same action multiple times based on specific conditions.
  • For example, a loop can be used to automatically print numbers from 1 to 10.

5. Functions and functions:

  • Functions are sets of commands that perform a specific task.
  • Functions can be defined to execute specific parts of the code over and over again.
  • Functions can be called to perform their task when needed.
  • For example, you can define a function that adds two numbers together and returns the result.

6. Graphical structures:

  • Graphical structures allow data to be organized and stored systematically.
  • Includes graphic structures such as lists, arrays, and dictionaries.
  • Chart structures can be used to store and easily access sets of related data.
  • For example, a list of student names for a particular subject can be stored in a simple list.

The most important programming languages

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Python is considered one of the most popular languages ​​among beginners in the world of programming. It is praised for its simplicity and ease of learning, offering a simple and easy-to-understand programming structure. Thanks to its strong community and vast libraries available, Python can be used in diverse fields such as web development using the Django framework, graph analysis using the pandas library, and even in artificial intelligence using the TensorFlow library.


JavaScript is an essential programming language in developing websites and web applications. It is easy to learn and use, and is useful for understanding basic programming concepts such as variables, conditions, and loops. In addition, JavaScript is widely used in developing dynamic and interactive web applications and online games.


Java is considered among the most widely used programming languages ​​in the world. Java provides a rigorous and systematic structure that helps to understand programming concepts well, and is widely used in developing web applications, Android applications, and large and complex systems. Java is also used in business and enterprise applications because of its robustness and stability.

C #:

C# is a programming language developed by Microsoft and is mainly used in developing desktop applications and gaming applications using the .NET platform. C# provides power and flexibility in application development and is characterized by a strict and structured code structure.


Ruby is a dynamic and easy-to-learn programming language, commonly used to develop web applications using the Ruby on Rails framework. Ruby is encouraged for those looking for a programming language that makes it easier to work more productively and creatively.

What do I need to learn programming?

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An integrated development environment provides a set of tools that help you write and edit code effectively, and ensures that programming is easier and more effective. Some examples of IDEs include Visual Studio Code, IntelliJ IDEA, and PyCharm.

After this, you must choose the programming language you want to learn and use. Start by choosing a language that suits your goals and needs, such as Python, JavaScript, Java, C#, or Ruby.