How is weather forecasted?

I looked out the window of the room and found that it was sunny, so I decided to go out of the house with my family to the park because the presence of the sun here in Germany is controversial, as we rarely see the sun. But the surprise was that as soon as we put on our clothes and were about to go out, we found storms and tornadoes.

I was confused, how did the weather change so quickly?! I decided to understand what happened, so I sat in front of the computer and researched how to predict the weather. I began to read and learn that weather forecasting is a complex process that requires collecting and analyzing climate data from various sources.

I realized that weather stations around the world collect data such as temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind speed and direction, and precipitation. Satellites also play a vital role, providing images of the atmosphere that help identify clouds and pressure systems. Even radars are used to measure rainfall and determine its intensity and location, and weather balloons are launched to collect data about temperature, humidity and pressure at different altitudes.

Weather forecasting trip

From monitoring stations to Weather appsWe will learn with you about the most important stages that the experts work on in order to deliver information to you via the phone or screen of the weather news daily.

Collect information from the monitoring network

Collecting atmospheric data is the basic step in the process Weather forecasting. For this purpose, a dense network of meteorological stations is deployed across the land, working around the clock to provide us with accurate measurements of several influencing factors, including temperature، Atmospheric pressure، Humidity، Wind speed and directionAnd even quantity Rainfall The amount of solar radiation that the sun reaches us.

In addition to ground monitoring stations, satellites play an essential role in the monitoring process. These space eyes orbit our planet and take detailed pictures of the atmosphere, allowing experts to follow the movement of storms and various weather systems, measure the temperatures of the upper layers of the atmosphere, and determine the percentage of water vapor in the air.

Ground-based radar devices also contribute to detecting and tracking the movement of rain, snow, and dust, in addition to thunderstorms that pose a threat to the safety of individuals and property.

As for remote areas that are difficult to reach, or that require data from the upper atmosphere, weather balloons are used. These balloons carry advanced measuring devices, as they rise high into the atmosphere to collect the necessary information and supplement the data collected from other monitoring sources.

The role of complex computer models

After collecting these huge amounts of information from various sources, comes the role of the real masterminds in the weather forecasting process: complex computer models. These models can be likened to precise atmospheric simulation programs, where all the data collected is fed into complex physical equations that simulate air movement, pressure, and temperature. These programs simulate the development of weather conditions over a certain period of time, allowing experts... By predicting the weather In the coming days and weeks.

It should be noted that the quality of these computer models in accurately predicting weather conditions depends greatly on the accuracy of the information that is fed into them, in addition to the complexity of the algorithms used. With the continuous progress in the field computingThese models are constantly evolving, becoming more capable of processing larger amounts of data and improving the accuracy of predictions.

Meteorological experience

Despite the enormous power of computer models, the role of... Meteorologists It remains necessary to ensure accuracy Weather forecasting.

These experts have a deep knowledge of meteorology, in addition to extensive experience in analyzing data and historical weather patterns. After reviewing the outputs of computer models, the meteorologist reviews the initial forecasts and compares them with accumulated knowledge and experience.

I also liked to delve deeper into how the computers that calculate the weather and convert all the data into numbers and degrees work, and I also found the following information:

Programming languages ​​used in developing weather forecasting models

Many programming languages ​​are used to develop weather forecasting models, and each language has its own advantages and disadvantages. Here are some of the most important languages ​​used:

1. Fortran language:

A powerful, high-performance programming language suitable for complex scientific calculations that require high accuracy. It is widely used in developing numerical prediction models because of its ability to process huge amounts of data quickly and efficiently. It is available on a wide range of operating systems.

2. C language:

A fast and efficient programming language used to develop programs that require high memory efficiency. It is used in developing some components of weather forecasting models, such as:

  • Easy to learn and use.
  • Data input and output systems
  • Optimization algorithms

3. C++ language:

A powerful and versatile programming language that combines the speed of C with the flexibility of C++. They are used to develop complex components in weather forecasting models, such as:

  • It allows developers to have fine-grained control over software performance.
  • Aerodynamic models
  • Physics models

4. Python language:

An easy-to-learn and use programming language that is widely used in the field of data analysis. It is used to develop data analysis and graphing tools to display the results of weather forecasting models. In addition, Python is used to develop graphical user interfaces (GUI) to interact with weather forecasting models.

In my research, I also decided to learn through pictures the most important devices that weather experts use to identify weather conditions, and I found this information:

Devices used by weather experts

  • Barometer: It measures atmospheric pressure, which is an important indicator for predicting changes in weather such as storms and different weather systems.
  • Rain gauge: It measures the amount of rain falling during a certain period of time.
  • Thermometer: Measures the ambient air temperature.
  • Anemometer: Measures wind speed and direction.
  • Hygrometer: It measures the amount of water vapor in the air, which is an indicator of the possibility of fog or dew forming.
  • Wind vane (ensign): Indicates the prevailing wind direction.
  • Radar: It sends out electromagnetic waves and detects their reflections, which helps determine the location and occurrence of rain, snow, dust, and thunderstorms.
  • Weather satellites: It orbits the Earth and takes pictures of clouds, storms and various weather systems, providing valuable information about large-scale weather conditions.
  • Computers: It plays a major role in processing and analyzing data collected from various measuring devices.
  • Disdrometer: It measures the size and speed of falling raindrops or snowflakes.
  • Pyranometer (solar radiation measure): It measures the amount of solar radiation that reaches the Earth's surface.
  • Snow Gauge: Measures the depth of snow accumulated on the ground.
  • Sunlight Sensor: It measures the amount of sunlight reaching the Earth's surface.
  • Transmissometer (a device for measuring vision range): It measures horizontal visibility, and is an important indicator of fog and smog conditions.
  • Aneroid barometer: A portable device that measures atmospheric pressure, and is sometimes used by hikers and explorers.
  • Pressure sensors: They can be located in buoys or ground stations to measure atmospheric pressure continuously.
  • Evaporation pan: It measures the rate of water evaporation from an open surface, which helps understand atmospheric humidity.
  • Leaf wetness Sensor: It measures the moisture content of plant leaves, which helps understand the risk of fungal diseases affecting plants.

Finally, to what I told you about my story at the beginning. I really didn't expect weather forecasting to be this complicated, but now I appreciate the effort to make these predictions possible. After this day, I decided to follow the weather news regularly before leaving

Taken from some of the following sources: How weather forecasts are created -

How is weather forecasted?